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Overview         (For age - group : Above 16 )

This educational science and technology animation shows the concept of production, composition and setting of cement and all the chemical reactions involved in the processes; mortar and concrete are also touched upon. This is very useful for K9 -K12 students, teachers and for the industry people for understanding how cement works.

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Content : Educational science software
Type :

Duration :
12 minutes

    Topics Covered :
  • What is the use of cement in life?
  • Raw material used for producing cement
  • Process of cement making and chemical reaction
  • Final composition of cement
  • What is Mortar and Concrete?
  • Why calcium sulphate is added to the cement ?
  • Why are cement and concrete used for construction ?
  • How cement sets? or how cement becomes hard after
    it is mixed with water?

Cement Production
Composition of cement
Cement Production
Composition of cement
Chemical reactions involved in production of cement
Chemical reactions involved in the setting of Cement

Chemical reactions involved in production of cement

Chemical reactions involved in the setting of cement
Details of the animation/ movie /software

The term cement is also commonly used to refer more specifically to powdered materials which develop strong adhesive qualities when combined with water.
Cement is made by mixing substances containing lime, silica, alumina, and iron oxide and then heating the mixture until it almost fuses. Cement consists of particles containing compounds of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), aluminium (Al), silicon (Si) and oxygen (O) in varying proportion.
The main four raw material of cements are: 60% to 67% CaO, 17% to 25% SiO2, 3% to 8% Al2O3, up to 6% Fe2O3 and small amounts of magnesium oxide, magnesium sulfate, sodium and potassium oxides.

Chemical constituents of cement is

54% Tricalcium silicate (3CaO.SiO2) (C3S)
16% Dicalcium silicate (2CaO.SiO2) (C2S)
11% Tricalcium aluminate (3CaO.Al2O3) (C3A)
9% Tetracalcium aluminoferrite (4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3) (C4AF)

During the heating process dicalcium and tricalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate, and a solid solution containing iron are formed. Gypsum is later added to these products during a grinding process.
Cement with a high aluminate content is used for fireproofing, because it is quick-setting and resistant to high temperatures; cement with a high sulfate content is used in complex castings, because it expands upon hardening, filling small spaces.
Cement is usually mixed with other substance. Mortar is a mixture of cement, sand, water and lime. Concrete is a mixture of cement, sand and crushed stones.

All about it inside the animation.

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Q & A
Q1: werw is coming 1.2 Al2o3 in l.s.f j.k.sinha 4/7/2013
Q2: how can i make protein base foraming agent for light weight concrete? sunny 9/1/2012
Q3: pls let me know the clc protein based foaming agents ingredients and it's ratio Mr.SUNNY 3/7/2011
Q4: experiment of setting of cement vicky bhandari 10/8/2010
Q5: What is the chemical and physical nature of the white substance(yeast like) which develops on the bricks of a building after some time. umer afzal 21/1/2010
Q6: How BIS decided means derivation of LSF 0.66 min and 1.02 maximum. What is based to decide the same Surendra Joshi 20/12/2009
Q7: how to produce protein foaming agent for concrete ramesh 23/9/2009
Q8: best foaming agent formula with correct ratio for foaming cement ramesh 23/9/2009
Q9: What will happen if the quantity of 'calcium aluminate' is completely removed from the constituents of the normal portland cement? shuja zaidi 18/2/2009
Q10: What is the chemical composition of Foaming agent or what are they chemically? Kindly give the generic name of those foamin agents, that can produce very stable foam for light weight congrete. Thank you. VIJAY VYAS 2/2/2009
Q11: What is the best composition for producing very stable Foam? Is it necessary to add any foam stabilizing agent? If so, kindly name such product and mention the % of its use in the formulation. Thank you. VIJAY VYAS 2/2/2009
Q12: why ball mill is better than vrm for cement grinding. mukesh mishra 24/9/2008
Q13: why do migration test of kiln mukesh mishra 24/9/2008
Q14: It is possible to use 4000 kcak/kg with 40+ VCM coal as uel in cement kiln vinz 14/9/2008
Q15: what the reason of 7-28 days fails inspite of the cement is capable with the standerd saad A. Khalaf 27/3/2008
Ans: Improper curing of new concrete substrate (requires minimum of 7-28 days, temperature dependent). It could also fail due to bond-preventing compounds, form release agents. Failure could be due to embedded surface contaminants - oil, grease, adhesives, markings, paint, rust, and other barrier creating substances which prohibit adhesion. Another reason could be that in hot day with low humidity, it can cause the water inside samples facing higher evaporation through the diffusion mechanisms and weaken the samples. With samples under air and natural weather that faces evaporation due to the tropical weather causing insufficient water content for hydration process.
Q16: Compare foam concrete and AAC. Kumaravel 17/3/2008
Ans: Foam concrete is cement-bonded material manufactured by blending a very fluid cement paste (slurry) and then injecting stable, pre-formed foam into the slurry. The volume of slurry to foam dictates the density of the concrete. These are suitable for both precast and cast-in-place applications. Good strength characteristics with reduced weight make it suitable for structural applications such as lightweight partitions, wall and floor panels. Autoclaved Aerated concrete (AAC), is a lightweight, precast building material. It provides structure, insulation and fire resistance. AAC products include blocks, wall panels, floor and roof panels. It can be routed, sanded and cut to size on site using standard carbon tip band saws and drills. It has excellent thermal efficiency.
Q17: Please give me kiln operating procedure notes Tewodros Gebreyes 5/1/2008
Ans: Cement Kiln are a huge cylindrical furnace 12 to 25 feet in diameter and 450 to 1,000 feet in length. They are set on a slight incline and rotate from 1 to 4 RPM. Cement kilns can process up 200 tons of raw material such as limestone, clay, and sand each hour. Raw materials are introduced into one end of a kiln. The kiln is slightly elevated at the end where the materials are introduced. The materials move slowly toward the other end. As the raw materials tumble through the kiln, they are gradually heated to at least 2,700ºF. As they are heated, the molecules of fuel, air and raw materials break apart. When temperatures reach 2,700ºF. the molecules recombine to form a stable new mineral compound called "clinker", the primary ingredient found in Portland Cement.
Q18: operation cement animation ayyub 28/12/2007
Ans: The operation of the cement production is described in the animation, please refer to it by either subscribing it and viewing it online or by purchasing and downloading it.
Q19: What are the different properties between AAC and foamed concrete Mat 5/9/2007
Ans: Foamed concrete -Cellular Lightweight Concrete and AAC are equal in terms of easy workability, strength, non-toxic, pest & mold resistance, high thermal & acoustic insulation, durability and fire resistance, however CLC has lesser water penetration, can be used for low-rise load-bearing role as compared non load bearing use of AAC, can be cast in place economically, gains strength with age and can also be made from fly ash, can also be pumped for filling up gaps, produced with low energy need.
Q20: Is marginal increase of lime saturation factor above 1.02 is significant in using such cement for concreting Sathkumara 3/9/2007
Ans: Burn ability reduces as LSF increases or free lime increases. C3S/C2S are controlled by LSF, excessive free lime results in increased autoclave expansion and unsoundness during setting or losses in strength, higher LSF mixes are more difficult to combine than are lower LSF mixes. Coarse feed is harder to burn. It can also lead to decrease in clinker grind ability.
Ans: The lime saturation factor controls the potential C3S ( Alite) to C2S ( Belite) ratio in the clinker. C3S controls the early age strength development while C2S controls the later age strength. The LSF is a ratio of CaO to SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 ( main oxides of clinker) it is calculated as: LSF=CaO/(2.8 SiO2 + 1.2 Al2O3 + 0.65 Fe2O3). It is also shown in percentage. Value higher 1.0 indicates presence free lime. Typical value is 0.92-0.98
Ans: Hurriclon reduces the pressure drop by up to 50% and high de-dusting efficiency. The particles are pushed by centrifugal force into separating chamber. The gas flow exit by its unique double submerged pipes (double dip tubes) makes it highly efficient. It has a separation efficiency of up to 98%. Multicyclone has a number of small cyclones. The flue gas passes thru the small cyclones with great peripheral speed, thereby separating the particles from the flue gas. It has around 90% efficiency.
Ans: Mortar is a mixture of cement, limestone, sand and water used mainly as mixture designed for laying up masonry units like cement block, stone or brick. Mortar is "sticky" so it adheres to the blocks or bricks and can be applied to a floor, wall as screed or render. Concrete is a mixture of cement, crushed stones, sand and water, it does not contain limestone. Concrete unlike mortar can stand alone. Workability or slump of mortar is stiffer : 5-8 inches, while concrete is 2-6 inch
Q24: What reactions create bubble in AAC production? Mehdi Karimi 5/5/2007
Ans: in case of autoclaved aerated concrete AAC, 5% Aluminum powder is added and it reacts with calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 and water to produce hydrogen, this in turn creates small gas bubbles that cause the foaming
Q25: What is the importance of the cement process? sofia 24/3/2007
Ans: Cement does not set by drying but through chemical reactions between the its grains and water. Concrete’s setting, strength gain, and durability all depend upon the setting processes. The following properties of concrete are affected by cement processes – water requirement, admixture incompatibility, chloride permeability, sulfate resistivity, workability, heat of hydration, setting time, shrinkage, strength, slump loss etc.
Q26: what is the spec for foam agent to produce foam concrete sanjay mehta 11/3/2007
Ans: Presently ASTM C869-91 (2006) is the standard specification for foaming Agents used in making preformed foam for cellular concrete; this supersedes C869-91 (1999), approach astm.org for the details. Generally, foaming agents are characterized by the Size of foam bubbles, Stability of foam, amount of foam produced per kg of foaming agent. The effect of foaming agent is also measured by air content, compressive strength, tensile splitting strength, density, and water absorption of concrete.
Q27: What is the chemical reaction in cement? jesi 7/3/2007
Ans: A combined chemical reaction has been provided as an answer on 27/6/2006, however it will be difficult to provide all of them here, as each is a complex one. We are giving equation for hydration of Tricalcium silicate, 2 Ca3SiO5 + 7 H2O ---> 3 CaO.2SiO2.4H2O + 3 Ca(OH)2 + 173.6kJ and and for hydration of Dicalcium silicate 2Ca2SiO4 + 5 H2O---> 3 CaO.2SiO2.4H2O + Ca(OH)2 + 58.6 kJ
Q28: what about the constituents like uranium?If possible tell me all the constituents in cement with their proportion. yared tesfaye 2/12/2006
Ans: DUCRETE or depleted uranium concrete is formed of depleted uranium aggregate DUAGG containing depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2) sintered with a synthetic-basalt-based binder. This concrete replaces the Portland cement, sand, and water for use in normal concrete. The synthetic-basalt-based binder coats the sintered DUO2 particles and retards their surface reactions. DUAGG composition has Al,Cu.Fe,K,Mg,Si,Sr,Zr,Ti in small % by weight with around 94% depleted Uranium.
Q29: How do you then get those SANS 50197-1:2000 standard or article nathi 1/11/2006
Ans: If you want general references (like we sourced) Internet and other online sources have number of these available, for exact specifications and details contact the standards authorities or the countries themselves.
Q30: i want to know the new clause in the mixing of the constituents of cements ie for the minor and major constituents maame adwoa 24/7/2006
Ans: Please specify the application type that you want the specifications for (ASTM C150 Type I/II Portland cement) or mention country (example South Africa has come up with SANS 50197-1:2000, or SANS 50413-1:2004 standard as a requirement). Cement Portland 42.5N is a popular one with Silicon dioxide (SiO2) 21.00 , Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) 5.30, Ferric oxide (Fe2O3) 3.30, Calcium dioxide (CaO) 65.60 , Magnesium oxide (MgO) 1.10 , Sulphur trioxide (SO3) 2.70
Q31: what if effect of raw materials on cement and what happend if we reduce or add al2o3 and fe2o3 and cao ? saeed 9/7/2006
Ans: High-alumina cement is a rapid-hardening cement, has a high resistance to chemical attack but generally their compounds act in combination : high (50-60%) C3S and C4AF have high sulfate resistance and used in foundations, high C2S (50-55%) and low C3S (20-25%) has low heat of hydration and used in massive structures such as dams.
Q32: what is the chemistry invovled in the composition of cement production? lucky 27/6/2006
Ans: Cement is produced by combining a mixture of calcium carbonate (limestone or chalk), silica (sand), aluminosilicate mineral (kaolin, clay or shale) and iron oxide in a kiln at 1450, the combined reaction is 12CaO + 2SiO2 + 2Al2O3 + Fe2O3 = 2CaO.SiO2 + 3CaO.SiO + 3CaO.Al2O3 + 4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3
Q33: how dose the foam genrater work to help produce a light wieght concret nihad 20/3/2006
Ans: A foam generator’s core unit is air compressor it foams by using compressed air to bubble a chemical-water mixture, this foam can also be made from protein or synthetic chemicals. It consists basically of 95 % air and is very stable and lasts through the stages of mixing with the mortar slurry. This action incorporates small-enclosed air bubbles within the mortar thereby making it lighter and possessing special properties such as low thermal conductivity and high fire resistance
Q34: what is auto claved concret jnihad 19/3/2006
Ans: Aerated Autoclaved Concrete (AAC) cellular or porous concrete is an economical, lightweight, structural material that provides thermal and acoustic insulation. It’s blocks be easily cut to size on the site. Prepared from Portland cement, lime, silica sand, water, and aluminum powder. Hydrogen bubbles out creating 1/8 inch holes filled with air hence is called Aerated. This solution is autoclaved (heated in high pressure vessel at 12 bar at 190 deg C) to for further reactions and hardening.

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