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Concept of pressure

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Overview         (For age - group : Above 16 )

The concept of pressure and energy can be understood better through the example of pressure cooker. Pressure cooker animation gives an insight into the molecular level interplay of energies and forces . Also included are sections on design and advantages of pressure cooker. This kind of explanation using animation is the only one in the world. It is very useful for industry and schools.

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Time (hr:min:sec) 1:30:0
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Category : Science
Type : Animation
Animation Type : Advanced

Total animation length: 1 hour 30 minutes

Please refer to details section for contents


Interaction of molecules exerting pressure in an open pan

Interaction of molecules exerting pressure in an open pan

Pressure of molecules of air

Atmosphere exerts a pressure on us
Pressure of molecules of air
Atmosphere exerts a pressure on us

Understanding atmospheric pressure and boiling

Understanding vapor pressure

Understanding atmospheric pressure and boiling
Understanding vapor pressure
Molecular collision between metal and water

Pressure impact of molecules

Molecular collision between metal and water
Pressure impact of molecules
Pressure impact of molecules

How boiling is affected by pressure

Pressure impact of molecules
How boiling is affected by pressure

Pressure in closed pan occurs due to the vapors trapped inside

Boiling in an open surface occurs as the molecules speed up and their kinetic energy increases

Pressure in closed pan occurs due to the vapors trapped inside
Boiling in an open surface occurs as the molecules have more kinetic energy due to heat
Details of the animation/ movie /software

Parts and construction of a pressure cooker

The animation works at two levels - macro and micro
At macro level
it gives an insight into structure and design of a pressure cooker, its parts and their description; its advantages, principle of working etc.

At micro level it explains the concept of boiling and how molecule interact with each other to create "pressure". The mechanism of boiling in an open pan, closed pan and further explanation based on momentum. Bonds in water and how are they affected by energy.

It links observed phenomenon to unseen molecules, it correlates

  • Boiling ----Molecular bonds & their energies
  • Pressure ---- Collision of molecules --- Conservation of momentum
  • Bubbles formation in boiling --- Vapour molecules of water
  • Heat --- Energy transfer between flame, metal atoms and water molecules
  • Atmospheric pressure --- Effect of gravity
  • Effect of atmospheric pressure --- Collision of air molecules.

The detail of the content covered and questions answered in animation format and in our explanatory notes are as follows:

Pressure cooker

  • Principle
  • Design
  • Methods of release of pressure ( in EN)
  • Parts
  • History ( in EN)
  • Safety feature ( in EN)
  • Benefits ( in EN)
  • Materials used in the manufacturing ( in EN)
  • What is happening inside it when water is heated ?
  1. Why does the temperature increase faster in a cooker than in an open pan?

  2. Pressure cooker an application of Gay lussac's law

  3. As the pressure goes on increasing, the temperature also rises faster (why)

  4. How does superheated steam ensure faster and better cooking ?

  5. Why boiling point of water changes due to pressure ? - based on change in molecular structure of water

  6. Mechanism of boiling in open pan - based on inter molecular forces - energy exchange between metal & water - collision - momentum - kinetic energy correlation

  7. Why do the H2O molecules that have broken free start rising to the top ?

  8. Why does boiling take place when vapour pressure = atmospheric pressure ?

  9. What has kinetic energy and collisions got to do with it ?

  10. Does boiling take place only at the surface of liquid?

  11. Complete story told in step-by-step of what happens to the molecules, energy and collisions as the temperature graphs rises from 27--80--100 --100+

  12. How do air molecules exert pressure on the water vapour ?

  13. Do the bubbles formed in boiling at the base contain air ?

  14. How is boiling affected in a closed pan ? - Pressure changes

  15. Why boiling point increases in a closed pan ? - water vapour molecules

  16. Equilibrium state in closed pan

  17. Temperature - pressure relationship under constant volume.

  18. Generation of high pressure inside pressure cooker - complete explanation done on the basis of momentum, collisions, Newton second law of motion and conservation of momentum.

  19. Momentum explained by an example

  20. Why pressure goes up when more gas is added to a closed container ?

  21. what would happen if the walls of a cooker are made up of thinner material ?

  22. why pressure cooker is a boon to those living at high altitudes?

  23. Why Boiling point decreases with an increase in altitude ? Why atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude ? what it has to do with gravity ?

  24. How can water boil at room temperature?
    Case 1) heat at definite pressure
    Case 2) reducing pressure

  25. Why is steam so efficient in cooking? ( in EN)

  26. Superheating water allowing it not to boil till 118 deg C under normal conditions.( in EN)

  27. Nucleation ( in EN)

  28. Exploding water ( in EN)

  29. Difficulty in boiling water in microwave oven ( in EN)

  30. Superheating water on a ordinary stove ( in EN)

  31. Why does water boil when a solid is introduced in it ? ( in EN)

( EN = Explanatory notes)

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Buyers Feedback:

Q & A
Q1: fuck u dumb fuck 26/7/2012
Q2: what is the best metal for making pressure cooker upali 8/11/2010
Q3: can vitamins be destroyed in pressure cookers? upali 8/11/2010
Q4: what is the boiling point of water inside a pressure coocker? sudhir kumar pradhan. 10/9/2008
Q5: Can you explain the momentum of the water particles and the wall of the cooker? Kim 27/7/2008
Ans: Before collision the molecule of water is moving with velocity “V”, its momentum is mV, after collision it moves with a velocity “-V” ( due to motion in opposite direction). Change in momentum is final momentum - initial momentum = - mV – (mV) = - 2mV. Since the wall is at rest, momentum is transferred to the wall, by Newton’s second law of motion : F = mdv/dt = 2mV/dt , this is the force generated by one molecule on the wall. We have covered the force generated by a number of molecules in the animation.
Q6: how can you measure temperature within a pressure cooker? Jose 23/4/2008
Q7: How can you measure the amount of pressure exerted by H2O being heated at a certain temperature within a pressure cooker? Jose 23/4/2008
Q8: what is the application of oxygen in the pressure coocker Mian 13/1/2008
Ans: Well we do not see the role of oxygen in pressure-cooking except that it forms a major constituent of air used for producing pressure inside and helps in combustion. But oxygen has some role firstly at high altitudes, oxygen is less, hence pressure cooking plays a major role here.
Q9: je bousoi download les simulation physique et chemique mamineallal 9/1/2008
Ans: Please subscribe to view the animation online or purchase them to download
Q10: what is the equation to describe heat loss in a compressible flow?perticularly in a pressure cooker filled completely with water vapours how much heat is lost in uplifting the vistle and how long the flow continues till the vistle falls down sunil 1/1/2008
Ans: The heat loss can be given by the equation h1 –h2 = ( ½ ( v2.v2 – v1.v1) = Cp ( T1 – T2), where where h represents enthalpy of the fluid (which can be considered the energy available for heat transfer), v is the flow velocity in the x-direction, Cp is the effective heat capacity of the fluid, and T is the fluid temperature. We are unable to answer the second part of the question.
Q11: How does latent heat of vaporization changes with vacuum?Does it increase or decrease? Naresh 8/12/2007
Ans: Latent heat of vaporization usually increases as vacuum increases (pressure decreases). The difference in enthalpy of vapor and liquid at saturation temperature is defined as latent heat. Now, in general, when you decrease the pressure, enthalpy of both vapor and liquid decreases. However, the decrease in enthalpy of liquid is of larger magnitude than that of vapor. Therefore, the difference or the latent heat will increase as you decrease the pressure.
Q12: How can we make water boil at room temperature? Vacuum concept is ok but the first way by heating at constant pressure didnot make sense Naresh 8/12/2007
Ans: You are correct in the sense it does not occur at room temperature when boiled under constant pressure, we had included the example at constant pressure only to highlight the fact that at vacuum one can boil at room temperature while under constant pressure, it takes much higher values of temperature.
Q13: Why don't you provide a free animation downloader? Luqman 6/8/2007
Ans: We have a preview button on each product page for viewing parts of animation, you can view online some free animation in our downloads section also. As the traffic or purchases on our site increase we will reduce the prices and make more animation available for free download
Q14: can you explain the working principle of servo actuator muthu 19/4/2007
Ans: A servo is small automatic device that has an output shaft, large amounts of power is controlled by means of very small one by velocity/position feedback mechanism. The shaft travel distance is proportional to the amount of power applied to the motor. This shaft can be placed in specific angular positions by a coded signal sent to servo. A single unit consists of a brushless servomotor, servo amplifier and position controller .It is used in automated step-less control of pressure and flow rate.
Q15: I want to know how pressure cooker is working?can you help me out in understanding muthupalaniappan 18/4/2007
Ans: Please buy a $2 subscription and see the animation, it will explain in detail the working of pressure cooker
Q16: I want to know chemical composition of materials of pressure cooker Irshad 3/4/2007
Ans: Hi, we are unable to source the chemical composition of the components of cooker like vessel, pressure valve, handle, lid, etc, as the sources for this information either broadly outline the material used in example 430 SS or aluminum used for outer body, silicone rubber material for gasket or are paid for example astm.org (for material standards) or manufactures themselves. Bureau of Indian standards might be able to help in this, as India is one of the major producers of pressure cooker.
Q17: What are material compositions of pressure cooker? irshad i kolape 12/3/2007
Ans: Aluminum or Stainless steel body with stainless steel in higher usage, food grade rubber gasket, Bakelite Handles with Stainless Steel handle body.
Q18: Is there a significant difference in the results between a pressure coker and the Superheated steam oven introduced by Sharp? http://sharp-world.com/corporate/news/060808.html They calim to produce superheated steam with a low-oxygen. Fito Lastiri 5/2/2007
Ans: From what we can gather from the site, this is a steam sprayer but not a pressure cooker. This model can be termed as a better and faster “ cooker” competing with a conventional oven but the effect of combined pressure and temperature in a pressure cooker cannot be matched by it in making curries and noodles. We are not sure about the oxygen thing.
Q19: Does pressure cooker work independently of atmospeheric pressure i.e. the altitude doesn't matter if we cook food in pressure cooker? Will the cooking time remain same whether we cook it on a plaine or on a hill in a pressure cooker? Pratyush 16/11/2006
Ans: Pressure cooker largely operates with same efficiency and time economy everywhere, at higher altitude two factors affect it 1) Ambient Temperature : Since it is cooler, the time required for pressure cooker and cold water put in it to reach working temperatures is higher 2) Pressure : If the weighted gauge is preset cooking time has to be increased, otherwise a higher weight is necessary as the atmospheric pressure outside is lower a pre-set weight will lift up earlier.
Q20: how is application of boiling apply on pressure cooker? Berry 15/10/2006
Ans: Boiling occurs when vapour pressure = atmospheric pressure, however in a cooker, the atmosphere is sealed and it is the steam that performs the restraining act on the molecules of water and prevent them from leaving liquid phase, since the steam is at higher pressure than atmospheric pressure hence water boils at 125 deg C or beyond.
Q21: how pressure cooker is an application of Guy Lussac's law? GIRISH KUMAR PADHY 8/7/2006
Ans: As per the law For a fixed quantity of gas at constant volume the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature of the gas in Kelvin, in pressure cooker as pressure increases so does temperature, and so does boiling point
Q22: why aliquid boils when it's vapour pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure? girish kumar padhy 7/7/2006
Ans: At this point the “vapour bubbles” that form everywhere in the “liquid” have enough kinetic energy to rise to the surface and escape. This is exhibited by vigorous bubbling effect “all over” the liquid and is called is boiling. Previously they would form but would implode before reaching the surface. (We hope this is what you wanted to know)
Q23: how is it possible in a pressure cooker to boil quickly? girish kumar padhy 30/6/2006
Ans: In an open vessel water boils when vapour pressure = atmospheric pressure, in a cooker steam is at higher pressure than atmospheric pressure hence water boils at 125 deg C or beyond. Thus it attains temperature higher than 100 deg C before boiling. A superheated steam all occurs, it has 8-10 times higher heat content than water. More heat content means faster cooking (or more heat to cook). Availability of high quantity of super heated steam and high temperature water leads to faster cooking.
Q24: Could you correct your grammar in the animation? hi 29/3/2006
Ans: Yes, we had made grammatical mistakes not only in the preview animation but also on the web page; this happens when someone in the team forgets to triple check the page and animation, maybe in a hurry to meet the deadline. We are now checking our site thoroughly. Thanks for pointing this out and please register on our site so that we can present you with a five-hour subscription package ( and slyly make you a bug checker for our site ;) )
Q25: could you do another page on air: its composition, its use and how it can be separated? holly 29/3/2006
Ans: Thanks for your request, generally, we try to complete a topic from every point of view and the research and development takes about 4-5 months per animation. We have already developed it until its composition stage but its regular use say for breathing or in tires and industrial use (in pneumatic applications) and its separation (incl. Cryogenic air separation) is taking a considerable time, we are targeting June’06 release. Please do check our site again for new releases.

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