The animation starts by brief explanation of the virus replication cycle. It is covered under three main headings 1) Initiation of infection 2) Replication and the expression of the virus genome 3) Release of the mature virions from the infected cells.
There are eight stages of virus replication these are 1) Attachment 2) Penetration 3) Uncoating 4) Gene expression 5) Genome Replication 6) Assembly 7) Maturation 8) Release
Uncoating : Uncoating occurs simultaneously with or rapidly after penetration. Hence, this stage is difficult to be studied and remains a relatively poorly understood stage of the replication cycle.
Uncoating in general refers to the events that expose the viral genome to the host cellular machinery and sets the stage for the viral genome to express its functions required for the replication.
This stage occurs simultaneously with or rapidly after penetration. In order to express the viral genome to the cell organelles, it is necessary that the virion coat be removed partially or completely. Therefore, once virions are in the cytoplasm, they are generally uncoated to some extent by a variety of processes, including simple dissociation and/or enzyme-mediated partial degradation of the particles, to release the viral genome as a naked nucleic acid or as a nucleoprotein complex.
The steps involved in the process of disintegration of the protein coat or capsid to release its genome into the cell is called as uncoating. Uncoating may be achieved by the complete or partial removal of the capsid.
The animation covers:
- Uncoating Process
- Some examples of uncoating
- Pore formation: Picornavirus
- Plasma membrane fusion:
- Direct uncoating: paramyxoviridae
- Partial uncoating: Hiv
- Endosomal fusion: influenza virus
- Endosomal lysis: adenovirus