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Overview         (For age - group : Above 16 )

This educational atomic theory animation shows the experiments and foundation work of Goldstein, Wein and Thompson that lead to the discovery of Proton by Rutherford. This 45-minute physics animation depicts in detail the endeavor of the scientists to see the unseen and is meant for high school and college physics classes.

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Time (hr:min:sec) 0:45:0
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Category : Physics
Type : Animation
Animation Type : Advanced

Total animation length
: 45 minutes

  • Goldstein's canal rays
  • Canal rays deflection
  • Thomson's contribution
  • Nucleus positive core of atom
  • Rutherford's proton
  • Wilson cloud chamber
  • Proton properties
  • Proton number


Goldstein's discovery of canal rays

Eugene Goldstein, while carrying out experiments in low-pressure gases, discovered a faint glow behind perforated cathode. He called them canal rays.

Goldstein's canal rays

Wein's ray bending
Both Goldstein's discovery of canal rays through perforated cathode and Wein's bending them in magnetic field laid the foundation for discovery of proton.

experiment rutherford discovery of proton

Experiments carried out by Rutherford by placing source of alpha rays in vacuum and different gases, played a key role in discovering proton.
wilson cloud chamber
The hypothesis of Rutherford was confirmed when tracks of proton were seen through the Wilson's cloud chamber. To know more watch preview of this atomic theory animation.
Details of the animation/ movie /software

This atomic theory animation explains the following in detail:

  1. Goldstein's canal rays : Animation shows the steps that lead to the accidental discovery of canal rays by Goldstein and the equipment he used.
  2. Canal rays deflection : Shown is how Wilhelm Wein contributed by studying the deflection and the apparatus used by him.
  3. Thomson's contribution : Animated presentation of Thomson study of canal rays and the factors affecting them, included are e/m calculations he performed.
  4. Nucleus positive core of atom :Around a century back Rutherford had shown nucleus to be the positive core of an atom (refer our animation " Discovery of Nucleus"), an introduction to the gold foil experiment is included here.
  5. Rutherford's proton : Rutherford discovered Proton a decade after he gold foil experiment, shown are the animation of apparatus, experiments and the step-by-step logic he applied for this.
  6. Wilson cloud chamber : Brief description of the cloud chamber, its parts and the path of proton.
  7. Proton properties & Proton Number: Proton properties and how the charge of the nucleus is determined .

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Q & A
Q1: what are goldstein's postulates Rahul 6/12/2015
Q2: how is goldstain ehxan gujjar 15/8/2015
Q3: describe the properties of protons that were determined based on goldstien experients Perseus 19/11/2014
Q4: who was the fouder of protons Haris iqbal 16/11/2012
Q6: who was the father of rutherford azizhayu 28/5/2012
Q7: Discovery of proton Muhammad 21/3/2012
Q8: How can we reduce pressure from dischare tube by the help of vacuum pump? mithal laghari 8/2/2011
Q9: what is probability? waqar hussain khoso 19/1/2011
Q10: what are alpha particles? rohan 18/12/2010
Q11: when light enter rare medium to densir medium bend towards normal.why? M ASMAR 29/9/2010
Q12: why the cannal rays are ring like in shape? manish 16/9/2010
Q13: describe the goldstein experiment discovrey of proton ramsha 22/8/2010
Q14: how proton discovered & its experiment ameya jawalgekar 23/7/2010
Q15: Q22: the Discovery of protron, neutron & electron Tuyisenge Thťophile 24/1/2010
Q16: why the positive rays are also caled the canal rays zanab 10/12/2009
Q18: who is Eugen Goldstein Vahnz_06 16/11/2009
Q19: The discovery of proton & electron David Olu 1/10/2009
Ans: Discovery of electron is given separately
Q20: what type of used in discharge tube? bala 30/4/2009
Q21: 1.when did goldstein find proton?what was he doing that time?what was his age that time?who helped him in doing it? sanjana 30/4/2009
Q22: 1.give short notes about proton discovery and the discoverer(in simple language). 2.in what ways is the discharge tube used? sanjana 30/4/2009
Q23: when was proton found really and who did it? chitra 28/4/2009
Q24: when did goldstein find proton? chitra 28/4/2009
Q25: Do protons depend on their source for example on nature of gas? farwa 25/1/2009
Q26: Why is paypal not listed as a payment option for subscription-time viewing? That is the best option for me. Steve Klein 2/1/2009
Ans: You can use PayPal for paying for subscription, please remember to drop us an email on how many hours you have bought, it is recommended that you register on the website, purchase your subscription by choosing to pay by demand draft or paypal and then pay separately by paypal, this way we can track your order
Q27: Which Gas did Goldstein used in his experiment for the discovery of proton? Sajjad Ahmad 22/11/2008
Q28: nice.GOD BLESS U satishkumar 12/7/2008
Ans: Thanks
Q29: which characteristic of proton shows that GOLD STEIN have discovered ion not proton? munazza mariyam 20/1/2008
Ans: Answered Below
Q30: which characteristic of proton shows that GOLD STEIN have discovered ion not proton? syeda munazza mariyam 17/1/2008
Ans: Goldsteinís ratio of charge to mass of this new particle was found to be differing from gas to gas. This was because he had discovered an ion instead of proton. This varying e/m is the characteristic that proves it.
Q31: what is the evidence of protons existance Vedad 17/12/2007
Ans: The evidence of protonís existence was provided by observing its tracks in the Wilsonís cloud chamber, it is a chamber which when put into a magnetic field and photographing the resulting trails, the mass, velocity and the charge of the particle can be found. By filling the chamber with nitrogen gas and water vapor and bombarding the mixture with alpha particles (helium) , Blackett produced hydrogen atoms and oxygen isotopes, all the three left different trails in the chamber. This confirmed protonís existence.
Q32: Why did scientists assume that a positive particle exixted? keith Chow 12/10/2007
Ans: In 1886, Goldstein observed, in an experiment containing perforated cathode, a faint glow behind cathode that meant something was traveling from anode to cathode. He called them canal rays, then Wilhelm Wein, subjected these rays to magnetic field, the rays deflected in direction opposite to cathode rays, he thought that these were positive particles, later JJ Thomsom measured the e/m and found it to be 2000 times that of electron confirming that these indeed were particles.
Q33: what are the electromagnetic waves? vikrant joshi 12/8/2007
Ans: Light, microwaves, x-rays, and TV and radio transmissions are all kinds of electromagnetic waves. They are all the same kind of wavy disturbance that repeats itself over a distance called the wavelength. Electromagnetic (EM) radiation is a self-propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. These components oscillate at right angles to each other and to the direction of propagation, and are in phase with each other.
Q34: who was the first to discover proton, Goldstein or Rutherford? BHAGYASHREE SHARMA 25/5/2007
Ans: Rutherford is officially credited with the discovery of proton, Goldstein could not prove the charge to mass ratio, infact he discovered only positive ions while Rutherford discovery pinpointed to proton
Q35: deflection of anode rays is less than cathod rays in presence of electric or magnetic field with the same strength? pratibha bhalekar 30/4/2007
Ans: Cathode rays consist of electrons, which are much lighter than protons and ions (nearly 2000 times), hence deflect more when subjected to the same electric or magnetic field.
Q36: Information about goldstein.did he discovered proton? satpal suppal 7/4/2007
Ans: Eugene Goldstein (1850 Ė1930) was a German physicist involved in the research in X-rays. In 1886, he discovered, using perforated cathode, rays travelling from the anode toward the cathode. He named them as canal rays. He believed that he had discovered the proton. But his ratio of charge to mass of this new particle was found to be differ from gas to gas. This was because he had discovered an ion instead of proton. Later Rutherford discovered proton and is attributed for its discovery.
Q37: the Discovery of protron, neutron & electron Hassan Zubaidi 5/1/2007
Ans: Discovery of neutron is going to be uploaded in a week's time; it is a completely new format and will contain for the first time a voice over

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