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Overview         (For age - group : Above 16 )

Animated science " Photosynthesis advanced version " : It contains advanced explanation of processes, new sections like photolysis of water have been added. This biology animation includes most of the photosynthesis version of animation and contains much more. Look at the details and preview.

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Photosynthesis Advanced :

Content : Science

Type : Animation (advanced)

Duration : more than 65 minutes

The animation file contains the animation of the above mentioned detail section, it also includes the following

  • How light sustains life on earth ?
  • What is Photosynthesis ?
  • Structure of chloroplast: stroma, grana (singular granum),
    intergran lamellae , thylakoids, thylakoid membrane.
  • Why do plants have green color ?
  • Photosynthesis pigments- Chlorophyll a and b,
    Carotenoids, Phycoerythrin & Phycocyanin.
  • Chemical reactions in photosynthesis:
    light dependent & light independent
  • Detail of light dependent reaction.
  • Photolysis of water in detail
  • Detail of light independent reaction (calvin cycle).

Table of comparison between free-photosynthesis, photosynthesis and advanced photosynthesis versions

(Table of comparison between free-photosynthesis, photosynthesis and advanced photosynthesis versions)

go to photosynthesis

go to photosynthesis free

Animated and illustrated explanatory notes contain:

  1. How stoma prevents water loss on a hot day?
  2. Do submerged plants have stomata?
  3. Why size shape and look of leaves in each plant is different?
  4. In autumn, why do leaves changes colour from green to yellow or red?
  5. Can yellow leaves perform photosynthesis?
  6. What are the xanthophylls and carotene pigments?
  7. Do all plants prepare their food by photosynthesis?
  8. Can other parts of a plant perform photosynthesis ?

Transfer of energy of sun between pigments
Reactions of photosystems in membrane
Transfer of energy of sun between pigments
Reactions of photosystems in membrane
Thylakoid discs and stroma
Photosystem I and II chemicals
Thylakoid discs and stroma
Photosystem I and II chemicals
Photolysis of water
Stoma-process of respiration
Photolysis of water
Stoma-process of respiration
Spectra of Chlorophyll a
Light dependent and independent reactions
Spectra of Chlorophyll a
Light dependent and independent reactions
Calvin Benson cycle for glucose production
Calvin Benson cycle for glucose production
Details of the animation/ movie /software

Besides covering completely the material present in Photosynthesis animation the advanced photosynthesis covers the following in detail (shown in bold)

Structure of leaf & functioning of stoma:

Cuticle details: Cuticle is made of cutin, a tough lipid-like and water inadmissible substance. In addition to which a waxy layer is often present.

Stoma details and animation of stoma: Stoma consists of an opening or stomata pore and two kidney-shaped guard cells. The guard cells don't have muscles, but they can open and close using fluid pressure.

Mesophyll cells: Mesophyll cells are located in between the upper and lower epidermis of the plant leaf. The lower mesophyll cells; spongy parenchyma have large inter-cellular spaces that facilitate gas diffusion.

Parts of a plant cell

Chloroplast structure with zoom ins: covers Chloroplast as an organelle, stroma, grana, lamellae, thylakoid and thylakoid membrane
Chloroplasts have a lens like structure. A mysophyll cell contains around 50 chloroplasts. Chloroplast contains bodies located on stroma lamellae called grana. Each granum consists of many thylakoid placed one above other like stack of coins.
Chlorophyll pigments are studded with the inner surface of thylakoid
The fluid within the chloroplast is called the stroma

Primary and accessory pigments, their light spectra, comparison, chemical structure, properties and explanations: Chlorophyll a , chlorophyll b, carotenoids, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin. Plants are green due to the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll. Chlorophyll serves to reflect green and yellow wavelengths of light and absorb all the others. Since we perceive primarily reflected colors with our eyes, plant tend to look green

Why leaves turn yellow in autumn? (Answered in animation)

Chlorophyll exists in two forms, chlorophyll a (the primary photosynthetic pigment) and chlorophyll b

Photosynthesis is not entirely reflective of the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a. This is due to the presence of accessory pigments such as chlorophyll b, the carotenoids, phycoerythrin and phycocyanin.

Carotenoids responsible for yellow and orange colour
Phycoerythrin responsible for red colour. For e.g. red algae Phycoerythrin mostly found in blue algae and blue bacteria

Accessory pigments serve to capture light energy and transfer this energy to chlorophyll.

Photosystems described: Antenna complex or Light Harvesting Complex (LHC) and the reaction center

The reaction center:
The LHC is composed of hundreds of molecules of chlorophylls and accessory pigments. Most of the Chlorophyll a in a cell is actually involved in light harvesting. These are referred to as antenna pigments

Why are they called antenna molecules? (Answered in animation)

All the pigment molecules in the LHC are constantly absorbing light, and when light of a certain wavelength (less than 680 nm) is absorbed; the absorbed energy is transferred from one molecule to another until it reaches the reaction center.

Types of Photosystems : PSII (P680) and PSI (P700)

The reaction center consists of one of several different chlorophyll molecules. The photosystem II has a reaction center consisting of a chlorophyll A molecule. In plants there is also a second type of reaction center in photosystem I, it again has chlorophyll 'a' but it is optimized for 700 nm wavelength of light.

Light Dependent and independent reactions
Photosynthesis is a two-stage process. The first process is the Light Dependent Process (Light Reactions), requires the direct energy of light to make energy carrier molecules that are used in the second process. The Light Independent Process (or Dark Reactions) occurs when the products of the Light Reaction are used to form glucose

How transfer of light energy takes place between pigment molecules? (Answered in animation)

As pigment molecules in the antenna complexes of Photosystem II absorb photons, the primary electron acceptor of the Photosystem II electron transport chain picks up excited electrons from the reaction center. During this process, Photosystem II splits molecules of H2O into 1/2 O2, 2H+, and 2 electrons by a process called as photolysis.

How does photolysis of water takes place-using Mn-complex? (Detailed animation of photolysis)

These electrons continuously replace the electrons being lost by the P680 chlorophyll a molecules in the reaction centers of the Photosystem II antenna complexes

Chemiosmosis , electron transport chain and proton gradient
ATP gets generated by the Photosystem II electron transport chain (consisting of Cytochrome b6f). According to the chemiosmosis theory, as the electrons are transported down the electron transport chain, some of the energy released is used to pump protons across the thylakoid membrane from the stroma of the chloroplast to the thylakoid interior space producing a proton gradient or proton motive force.

ATP Synthesis: As the accumulating protons in the thylakoid interior space pass back across the thylakoid membrane to the stroma through ATP synthetase complexes, this proton motive force is used to generate ATP from ADP and Pi.
What is H+ ion (proton) pump (answered in animation)
Non-Cyclic Photophosphorylation
Pigment molecules in the antenna complex of Photosystem I are also absorbing photons and excited electrons from the reaction center are picked up by the primary electron acceptor of the Photosystem I electron transport chain. The electrons being lost by the P700 chlorophyll a molecules in the reaction centers of Photosystem I are replaced by the electrons traveling down the Photosystem II electron transport chain. The electrons transported down the Photosystem I electron transport chain combine with 2H+ from the surrounding medium and NADP+ to produce NADPH + H+.

Detailed Calvin cycle (dark reactions)
This energy rich ATP and NADPH is then send to calvin cycle in stroma to combine with carbon dioxide (CO2) and water, producing sugar (glucose). This is light independent step.

This carbon, along with the ATP and NADPH produced from the light-dependent reactions, is used to form glucose

Calvin cycle starts with carbondioxide, which enters through stoma of leaf
Carbon dioxide is added to a five-carbon compound termed ribulose biphosphate (RuBP). The enzyme responsible for this reaction is termed Rubisco and, without it, photosynthesis would not be possible.

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Q & A
Q1: how electron of chlorophyll transfer from one molecule to another akhand bhatt 23/1/2009
Q2: what is the mechanism for phyotosynthesis in bacteria pallavi gupta 3/11/2008
Q3: I want you about nano and nanotechnology and if may i want the animation of nano thank you haneih 23/2/2007
Ans: Nano-technology is a recent discovery (1985) and opened a whole new field in Chemistry. Nanotubes are stronger than most fibers known to man. They have a promising potential for application towards medicine, communication, fabric, material, building design to name a few. Our animation on Nonotech, traces its history, types, detailed structure, chiral factor in rolling, preparation and application of SW & MW Nanotube and fullerene or buckyball. We are planning to launch it in March 2007.

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